Now we are living in the technological and modern world. India has developed in all the fields. All of have equal rights in India. There are different types of peoples (Hindu, Muslim, Christian) are living in India. But they are called Indian Hindu, Indian Muslim and Indian Christian. Our constitution gives equal rights and duties for all Indians.
Globalization, or globalisation is a term describing the increasing interdependence, integration and interaction among people, companies and corporations in disparate locations around the world. This umbrella term refers to a complex medley of economic, trade, social, technological, cultural and political relationships. The term has been used as early as 1944, however Theodore Levitt is usually credited with its first use in an economic context.
Definition of Globalization
globalization is the worldwide process of homogenizing prices, products, wages, rates of interest and profits. Globalization relies on three forces for development: the role of human migration, international trade, and rapid movements of capital and integration of financial markets.
Aspects of Globalization
Globalization also has a number of different focuses and aspects which contribute in varying amounts to the effect of globalization across the globe:
· Industrial globalization (alias trans nationalization) - rise and expansion of multinational enterprises
· Financial globalization - emergence of worldwide financial markets and better access to external financing for corporate, national and subnational borrowers
· Political globalization - spread of political sphere of interests to the regions and countries outside the neighborhood of political (state and non-state) actors
· Informational globalization - increase in information flows between geographically remote locations
· Cultural globalization - growth of cross-cultural contacts
· Globalism - connection between cultures, nations, and people, it embodies cultural diffusion, the desire to consume and enjoy foreign products and ideas, adopt new technology and practices, and participate in a "world culture". It is a universal, internationalist impulse that the world is connected.
· Globalist - someone who is aware of world issues, enjoys new ideas, and considers themselves global citizens with an open mind to both criticize and agree with others.
Positive and Negative Effects of Globalization
The term “globalization” is used to these collective changes as a process, or else as the cause of turbulent change. The distinct uses include:
· Economically, socially and ecologically postitive: As an engine of commerce; one which brings an increased standard of living to Third World countries and further wealth to First World countries.
· Economically, socially, politically, and ecologically negative: As an engine of “forporate imperialism”, one which tramples over human rights in developing societies, claims to bring prosperity, yet oftern simply amounts to plundering and profiteering. Negative effects include cultural assimilation via cultural imperialism, the export of artificail wants, and the destruction or inhibition of authentic local and global community, ecology and cultures.
Because of globalization it is easy to get any type of information with in seconds with the help televison, internet and telephone, mobiles and fax. Through media the people knowing what is meant by human rights and what is their duties.
Human rights are universal, indivisible and interdependent. Human rights are what make us human. When we speak of the right to life, or development, or to dissent and diversity, we are speaking of tolerance. Tolerance will ensure all freedoms. Without it, we can be certain of none.
Definition of Human Rights
Human Rights is defined as “The basic rights and freedoms, to which all humans are entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law”.
Human rights are founded on respect for the dignity and worth of each person. They are universal legal guarantees protecting individuals and groups against actions which interfere with fundamental freedoms and human dignity. Some of the most important characteristics of human rights are the following:
•They are internationally guaranteed;
•They are legally protected;
•They focus on the dignity of the human being;
•They protect individuals and groups;
•They obligate States and State actors;
•They cannot be waived/taken away;
•They are equal and interdependent;
•They are universal.
Types of Human Rights
There are so many types of Human Rights. Among them the important Human Rights are:
· Political Rights
· Cultural Rights
· Economic Rights
· Civil Rights
· Social Rights
Human Rights and Education
Our former President Dr. Sarvepalli Radha Krishnan said that the development of any nation is depend upon on its educational system and teachers. Teachers are national builders. Through education it is possible to change the world. Through education it is easy to motivate people. Through education only it is possible to learn what are our duties and rights? By establishing Human Rights departments the University Grants Commission has taking good steps to improve social development. Human Rights department conducting national seminars, workshops and conferences about Human Rights to motivate students and people in the society.
Mahatma Gandhi said ‘all are equal, truth is God and God is truth’. With the help of private organizations Government of India and State Government of Andhra Pradesh conducting so many programmes about human rights. There is a separate department for human rights at both state and central level. Every year December 10th is celebrated as International Human Rights Day.
Gender and Human Rights
Because of science and technology a lot of change has occurred in our daily life. Because of globalization it is possible to get any type of information with in seconds. Males and females are equal. There is no gender difference. Women are participating in all types of competitions and they are also succeeding. Number of females is also working in the law and police departments. There is a separate wing for female protection and welfare both at central and state level. Government gives equal rights to male and female.
The National Commission for Women was set up as a statutory body in January 1992 under the National Commission for Women Act, 1990 (Act No. 20 of 1990) of Govt. of India, to review the Constitutional and legal safeguards for women; recommend remedial legislative measures, facilitate redressal of grievances and advise the Government on all policy matters affecting women.
The issue of the advancement of women's rights has concerned the United Nations since the Organization's founding. Yet the alarming global dimensions of female-targeted violence were not explicitly acknowledged by the international community until December 1993, when the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women.
In view of the alarming growth in the number of cases of violence against women throughout the world, the Commission on Human Rights adopted resolution 1994/45 of 4 March 1994, in which it decided to appoint the Special Reporter on violence against women, including its causes and consequences.
Defining Gender-based Abuse
The Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women is the first international human rights instrument to exclusively and explicitly address the issue of violence against women. It affirms that the phenomenon violates, impairs or nullifies women's human rights and their exercise of fundamental freedoms.
The Declaration provides a definition of gender-based abuse, calling it "any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life".
The definition is amplified in article 2 of the Declaration, which identifies three areas in which violence commonly takes place:
· Physical, sexual and psychological violence that occurs in the family, including battering; sexual abuse of female children in the household; dowry-related violence; marital rape; female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women; non-spousal violence; and violence related to exploitation;
· Physical, sexual and psychological violence that occurs within the general community, including rape; sexual abuse; sexual harassment and intimidation at work, in educational institutions and elsewhere; trafficking in women; and forced prostitution;
· Physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated or condoned by the State, wherever it occurs.
Health and Human Rights
The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being..." – World Health Organization.
WHO's health and human rights work areas
Health and human rights has been designated as a cross-cutting activity in WHO. Ethics, Trade, Human Rights and Law (ETH) within Sustainable Development and Healthy Environments (SDE) is the focal point within the Organization for human rights.
WHO is actively strengthening its role in providing technical, intellectual and political leadership in the field of health and human rights. The main objectives are to:
· Strengthen WHO's capacity to integrate a human rights-based approach in its work
· Support governments to integrate a human rights-based approach in health development
· Advance the right to health in international law and international development processes
Promoting and protecting health and respecting, protecting and fulfilling human rights are inextricably linked:
· Violations or lack of attention to human rights can have serious health consequences (e.g. harmful traditional practices, slavery, torture and inhuman and degrading treatment, violence against women and children).
· Health policies and programmes can promote or violate human rights in their design or implementation (e.g. freedom from discrimination, individual autonomy, rights to participation, privacy and information).
· Vulnerability to ill-health can be reduced by taking steps to respect, protect and fulfill human rights (e.g. freedom from discrimination on account of race, sex and gender roles, and rights to health, food and nutrition, education, housing).
Now we are living in the technological world. Due to globalization we get any type of information with in seconds with the help of television, telephone, mobile, internet and fax. Now both male and female have equal opportunities. The literacy percentage of women is also high. Civil Rights, Political Rights, Economic Rights, Health Rights and Cultural Rights are primary rights for all. Through education it is possible to motivate about human rights among the students. Universities are primary resource centres for development of human right studies. With the help of seminars, workshops and conferences it is possible to share opinions of eminent persons in the society. Their suggestions are more valuable. Sri Venkateswara University is giving opportunity for students in the field of research in Human rights subject.
Name:Naraginti Amareswar reddy Father Name: N.M.Reddy Sex: Male Date of Birth: 10th Fed 1981 Ed Qua: M.Sc., M.Ed., research scholar in the dept. of education, sri venkateswara university, tirupati, india. e-mail ID: firstname.lastname@example.org